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Sample on New York City Community Public Health Assessment

Introduction

Among the core responsibilities of a public health Nurse is rooting out disparities a more so crafting correct methods leading to their elimination with the appropriate data.  Here the public health nurse works in conjunction with the involved community so as to come up with a viable data that in turn leads to generation of prolific solutions to tackle underlying community health problems (Clark, 2008). The data collected in relation to health issues must not be presented only in numeric data, but can also be accomplished via organised community based groups, carrying out interviews among members and their giving a viable insight and understanding of issues that affects the communities as compared to individual members only (Clark, 2008).  With this information at hand, the public nurse therefore is at a position to carry out a community based priorities and diagnoses. A clear cut assessment is made to identify a plan for improved health results. Plans and priorities are therefore put forward with the ongoing contribution of the respective population and mo more so not only when the program is at a final developmental stage (Clark, 2008).

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Community description

In the aspect of community Health, a community is defined as a field within public health boundaries or field within which the study, survey and improvement of biological communities’ health are carried out. In our case as far as our study is concerned, the New York City serves at the capacity of a community. New York is the centre of New York Metropolitan Area and the most populous city in US with the population of 8,244,910 people as by 2011(Dept of Demographics, 2010)

In united States census in 2010, the New York city’s population hit a record of 8,175,133, an increase by 2.1% from the 8 million that was previously recorded in the year 2000, significantly greater than the total resultant combination of Chicago and Los Angeles and estimated to hit an approximate of 9.2 -9.5 Million Come year 2030. New York City is a cosmopolitan American City with a diverse constitution of almost all races ranging from Asians (including Indians, Pakistanis, Afghanis, Koreans, Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Samoans etc), Whites (Caucasians), Native America Indians, Blacks (Negroes), Latinos and so on. By the year 2010, the city had the Asian population making up 12.7 % of the population, Blacks making up 25.5 % and then the Whites making up the remaining 44% and the Hispanics filling up the rest of population (Kirk, 2011).

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As a sample of the population of the United States population from the 2010, it was noted to have a pop.  Density of approx. 28,000 people per square mile i.e. (11,000/km²) and hence making it to be on top of the most densely populated cities n US. It has a median age of 39.3 yrs and those aged 16 years and over comprising the 77 % of the total population (Dept of Demographics, 2010).

In this respect the study assessed samples of family households in this case family household referring to more than one people with relation to family holder through marriage, birth or adoption and more in this case not involving same sex marriage as per se. Same sex marriages were only considered a family if there was at least one or more person related to the couple by either birth or adoption while the same sex unions in the case being regarded as a non-family households (Dept of Demographics, 2010).

Assessment findings

On the assessment carried randomly throughout the population of the New York City, illnesses among the youth including teenage pregnancies, psychiatric illnesses among the homeless residents and negligence of the elderly among the members of the population who are also faced by the health catastrophes related to environmental health issue e.g. escalation of Asthma on winter inversions are also highlighted upon. The assessment indicated after comparison with the previous year’s statics based on the national demographics that, there was a commendable growth of the homeless wherein there was a high prevalence of mental disorders including impairments (Stewart & McKinney 2007).

Table 1

Proportion of older and younger homeless people with active psychiatric symptoms  (2010)

City Sample size

Older (%)

Younger (%)

New York (24) Total: 8061

Older ( 60 years): 353

14

20

Los Angeles (44) Total: 521

Older ( 50 years): 61

19

19

London (11) Total: 101

Older ( 65 years): 37

24

35

A table of comparison in Proportion of older and younger homeless people with active psychiatric symptoms (Stewart & McKinney 2007).

Short Interpretation of the Genogram

The genogram was drawn to highlight on the ‘psychosocial health, health access, environmental health and the total population of the residents in the New York City. The population of New York stood at 8,244,910 by 2010 national demographics; focus on the environmental inversions and coupled asthma infections, the number of health facilities available and so on. It is on the basis of this genogram that the assessments of the public health affairs of the city are made.

Community Based Diagnosis

Therefore based on the statics from the assessment of the population in the above named community, poverty which is more prevalent among the Hispanics and Black population appears to be the major impediment to Health Equality in the city of New York (Bassuk et al 2004). Poverty plays a major role in homelessness, in the sense that among the homeless in New York, almost everybody has no means of achieving livelihood and therefore it is on this point that still makes them vulnerable to other complications like asthma due to weather fluctuations on their residential streets and other complications like tuberculosis as a results of congestion in non-hygienic places (Bassuk et al 2004).  The teenage pregnancies, high mortality rates among the homeless are still other products of poverty and in one way or another have a clear connection to poverty (Stewart & McKinney 2007).

Table 1.

 Most common reasons for hostel use reported by hostel staff        in New York City  

Men  65 years Men £ 64 years Women  65 years Women £ 64 years
Family breakdown Unemployment Elder abuse Family violence
Eviction Eviction Family breakdown Eviction
Cognitive impairment Mental illness Eviction Mental illness
Alcohol abuse Substance abuse Hospital referrals Substance abuse

 

Table depicting Most common reasons for hostel use reported by hostel staff in New York City   (Stewart & McKinney 2007)

In the quality life functioning, New York City still playing the role of the community, we focus on the on the homelessness, psychiatric disorders, asthma and teenage pregnancy being the illnesses (Roth & Bean 2000).

From the assessment, homelessness could be tracked down to evictions, family breakages, alcohol abuse and drug abuse, cognitive impairment and so on (Roth & Bean 2000).

Therefore, as a community health nurse, pin-points the illness; the nurse identifies or else formulate nursing and/or community health procedure that can therefore be implemented so as to increase the quality of life among members of respective community. In this case, the techniques that are recommended for the New York community so as to counter the above pin pointed bottlenecks of the public health (i.e. homelessness, teenage pregnancies, obesity and asthma), prevention works; community health planning; truckling public health priorities and more so carrying out community-based seminars to counter the same problems (Gelberg & Linn1990).

Reference

Bassuk EL., Rubin L. &Lauriat A. (2004) Is homelessness a mental health problem: Am J Psychiatry;141:1546–50.

Clark, M.J. (2008). Community assessment reference guide for community Health nursing: Advocacy for population health. Upper Saddle River: NJ. ISBN-13: 9780132404006

Cohen C., Teresi A. & Holmes D.(2000) The physical well being of old homeless men. J Gerontol 43:S121–S128.

Gelberg L. & Linn L. (1990). Differences in health status between older and younger homeless adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:1220–9.

Population Density; Geographic Information Systems – GIS of Interest. Accessed 2007-05-17. What I discovered is that out of the 3140 counties listed in the Census population data only 178 counties were calculated to have a population density over one person per acre. Not surprisingly, New York County (which contains Manhattan) had the highest population density with a calculated 104.218 persons per acre.

Roth D & Bean G (2000) New perspectives on homelessness: findings from a statewide epidemiological study. Hosp Community Psychiatry;37:712–9.

Stewart B. & McKinney (2007). Homeless Assistance Act, P. L. 100–77.

Kirk, S. (2011). Asian New Yorkers Seek Power To Match Numbers. The New York Times Company.

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